Rum Runners & Rogues

1. Jolly Roger

Jolly Roger is the traditional English name for the flags flown to identify a pirate ship about to attack. The flag most commonly identified today is the skull and crossbones symbol on a black flag, used by a number of pirate captains in the 1700's. 

2. Alfred Valdmanis

Employed by Joey Smallwood in 1950 as Director General of Economic Development in Newfoundland, Alfred Valdmanis had made many promises to the province but never delivered. He was arrested in 1954 for taking kickbacks from builders of cement and gypsum plants. While in prison, Smallwood said "he was a brilliant but tragic figure".

3. Richard Squires

Born in Harbour Grace in 1880, Sir Richard Squires was the Prime Minister of the Dominion of Newfoundland from 1919-1923 and from 1928-1932.

4. Frank Moores

Frank Duff Moores was the second Premier of Newfoundland who advocated rural development and provincial control of natural resources. 

5. Nathaniel North

A Bermuda-born pirate during the Golden Age of piracy. He was a crewman in a band of privateers who captured the 18 gun brigantine called Pelican off the coast of Newfoundland. Following the retirement of John Bowen, he became Captain of the Defiant.

6. Danny

Danny Williams served as the ninth Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador. Before entering politics, he was a highly successful lawyer and businessman.

7. John C Doyle 

Born in Chicago in 1915, John C Doyle moved to Newfoundland in 1949 to begin work in the provinces mining and paper industries. In 1960, he was arraigned in Montréal on charges of theft, conspiracy and fraud in mining stock. Doyle had a sketchy financial past long before he came to Newfoundland, but his disastrous foray into the paper business here is what he is mainly remembered for.

8. Maria Cobham

Married to Eric Cobham, this duo is famous for being among the first St. Lawrence pirates for giving "no quarter", meaning all the captured crews were killed and their ships sunk.

9. Brian Peckford

The third Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador, Brian Peckford was a high school teacher prior to entering politics in 1972. 

10. Henry Mainwaring

Sir Henry Mainwaring was an English lawyer, soldier, author, seaman and politican who sat in the House of Commons from 1621-1622. He was also a pirate based in Newfoundland, then a naval officer with the Royal Navy.

11. Al Capone 

An American gangster who attained fame during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. He was given the nickname Scarface by the press which he intensely disliked. Al Capone ran rum around the shores of Newfoundland and stored it in St. Pierre et Miquelon.

12. Bill McCoy 

William McCoy was an American sea captain and rum runner during the Prohibition in the United States. He considered himself an "honest lawbreaker" and took pride in the fact that he never paid a cent to organized crime, politicians or law enforcement for protection. McCoy also smuggled liquor and spirits Saint-Pierre et Miquelon located south of Newfoundland. 

13. Captain Kidd

A Scottish sailor who was tried and executed for piracy. He is considered either one of the most notorious pirates in history. In 1720 he entered Trepassey Bay in Newfoundland with a small ten-gun sloop and a crew of sixty. There were some twenty-two ships at anchor with 1200 sailors on board. At the sight of Roberts flag the terror-stricken crews of each vessel piled into long boats and rowed for shore. 

14. D'Iberville

Pierre Le Moyne D'Iberville was a man of many titles, including soldier, ship captain and explorer. During a four month raid in Newfoundland, D'Iberville was responsible for the destruction of 36 settlements, which was one of the cruelest and most destructive of his career.

15. Black Bart Roberts

Bartholomew 'Black Bart' Roberts was known as the most successful pirate of the Golden Age of piracy, as measured by vessels captured, taking over 470 in his career. In 1720, he attacked the harbour of Trepassey, where there were 22 merchant ships and 150 fishing ships, all of which were abandoned by their panic-stricken captains and crews. Black Bart and his crew were masters of Trepassey without any resistance being offered.

16. Peter Easton

Perhaps one of the most successful of all pirates, Peter Easton successful of al pirates, Peter Easton operated along the Newfoundland coastline in the 17th century. He controlled such sea power that no sovereign or state could afford to ignore him and he was never overtaken or captured by any fleet commissioned to hunt him down. 

17. Landlubber

Landlubber is a term describing a person unfamiliar with the sea, sailing or someone who is as clumsy onboard a ship as a person who has never been to sea. Coming from a pirate this term is very offensive.

18. Scalleywag

 Another name for a rascal or person who behaves badly. Generally used as an insult when coming from a pirate.

19. Masterless Men

Masterless Men of Newfoundland was a legendary outlaw society in the late 18th to the early 19th century. Led by Peter Kerrivan, the Masterless Men were regarded as criminals by the authorities. It is said they inhabited the wild barrens of the Avalon Peninsula and lived by hunting, fishing, stealing and illegally trading in isolated villages.

20. John Nutt

John Nutt was an English pirate from the 17th century. He was one of the most notorious brigands of his time, raiding the coast of Southern Canada and western England for over three years before being captured by Sir John Eliot. 

21. Sheila Nageira

Sheila Nageira was a young Irish Princess that was captured by a Dutch privateer in the English Channel while returning home from France. She was later rescued by Peter Easton, an English privateer. It is claimed that she was the first European woman to give birth in Newfoundland, as well as the islands first school teacher, midwife and herbal doctor.

22. Grog

Grog is a mix of spirits (originally rum) and water. It is named after Admiral Vernon, who's nickname was "Old Grog" due to the grogam cloak he wore. In 1740, he was the first to order diluted (instead of neat) rum to be served out to sailors. 

23. Swashbuckler

A swashbuckler is an extravagant swords-person or adventurer. In the 16th century, to 'swash' was to strike something violently, while a 'buckler' was a small round shield that would be carried by a handle at the back. Therefore, a swashbuckler was literally one who made a loud noise by striking his own or his opponent's shield with his sword.

24. Schooner

First used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, a schooner is a type of sailing ship with two or more masts and having a gaff-rigged lower masts.

25. Joey

Joseph "Joey" Smallwood was the main force that brought the Dominion of Newfoundland into the Canadian confederation in 1949, becoming the first premier of Newfoundland, serving until 1972. 

26. Charles Bellamy

Charles Bellamy was an 18th-century English pirate who's career first began when he raided ships off the coast of both New England and New Brunswick, before sailing northwards to established a fortified encampment somewhere in the Bay of Fundy where he continued attacking fishing and raiding ships off the southern coast of Newfoundland.

27. Crow's Nest 

The crow's nest is a shelter or platform fixed near the top of the mast of a vessel, used as a place for a lookout to stand.

28. John Crosbie

John Crosbie served as the 12th Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. He is now a retired provincial and federal politician, having served as a provincial cabinet minister.

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